Electric Power System – EPS

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Electric Power System – EPS

EPS – Electric Power System is the set of all facilities and equipment for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity up to and including measurement.

Electric Power System – EPS

The generation is responsible for producing the electrical voltage.

The Electric Power Generating Plants can be:






Tidal Wave

Wind power


After generation in AC, the voltage goes through a process of elevation to be transmitted at high voltage levels, due to lower losses and lower implementation cost of the transmission system, because the higher the voltage, the lower the electric current.

As the cable gauge determines the electric current and voltage drop, the higher the transmission voltage the smaller the cable gauge.

Transmission and subtransmission voltage values: 750; 500; 230; 138; 88; 69 kV.

The 69 and 88 kV voltages are considered subtransmission, ie the voltage values ​​in a ETT – Transmission Transformer Station, to supply customers in subtransmission voltage.

When arriving at ETDs – Distribution Transformer Stations, also known as substations, the transmission voltage or subtransmission, depending on the supply voltage of the ETD, is lowered to primary distribution voltage values ​​(34.5, 24.5 and 13, 8 kV). In some regions there is still a primary distribution voltage of 3.8 kV, but it is in extinction phase.

Distribution Transformer Station – DTS

The primary distribution circuits in the Electric Power System are identified according to the voltage class and working voltage, as follows:

Class 5 kV – Working Voltage – 3.8 kV – Circuit ID beginning with “0”

Example: Circuit 03, 04, 05.

Class 15 kV – Working Voltage – 13.8 kV – Circuit ID beginning with “1”

Example: Circuit 103, 104, 105.

Class 25 kV – Working Voltage – 24.5 kV – Circuit ID beginning with “2”

Example: Circuit 203, 204, 205.

Class 35 kV – Working Voltage – 34.5 kV – Circuit ID beginning with “3”

Example: Circuit: 303, 304, 305.

All ETDs have a name and an acronym. In the case of Capuava ETD, acronym CAP. ETD Santo André, acronym SND, and the nomenclature of the primary circuits will be:

SND – 03 – SND – 04 – SND – 05, because the primary distribution voltage of this ETD is 3.8 kV.
CAP – 103 – CAP – 104 – CAP – 105, because the primary distribution voltage of this ETD is 13.8 kV, and so on.
Primary distribution circuits with end ’00’ and ’01’ are distress circuits and are not used to distribute voltage to urban centers like the others. They are only in ‘voltage’, unloaded. If a problem occurs in any other circuit, such as a transformer failure, for example, the relief circuit will assume the load of the failed circuit through knife-wrench maneuvers.

Primary Distribution Circuit

Upon arriving at the electricity consumption centers, the primary distribution voltage may serve industrial customers and large Medium Voltage customers through the primary cabin, a contract to be entered into with the electricity concessionaire through electrical projects and other documentation.

Primary Cabin

To serve low voltage customers – BT, primary distribution voltage values ​​should be lowered to secondary distribution voltage values ​​and delivered to the customer input standard.

The utility is responsible for supplying the voltage value in accordance with the Norms and Standards to the customer input standard circuit breaker.

Responsibility for the construction and maintenance of the input standard is the responsibility of the customer, as well as the conservation of the watt hour meter that will be his responsibility. In case of misuse or vandalism, the customer will be responsible for the consequences.

Responsibility for periodic maintenance of the watt hour meter and repair in the event of damage due to wear of the equipment lies with the utility.

The supply voltage values ​​in the delta and star system can be checked in the Delta System and Star System articles.

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Adolpho Eletricista – Your Electrician in São Paulo – SP!

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Losses in the Electric Power System

The Electrical Power System consists of generation, transmission and distribution. Losses in the Electric Power System refer to the generated electric energy that passes through transmission lines and distribution networks, but which is not commercialized, either for technical or commercial reasons.

Electrical Power System

The transmission of energy, whether in transmission or distribution, inevitably results in technical losses related to the transformation of electrical energy into thermal energy in conductors (joule effect), losses in transformer cores, dielectric losses, etc.

Non-technical or commercial losses stem mainly from theft (clandestine connection, direct network diversion) or energy fraud (tampering in measurement), popularly known as “cats”, metering and billing errors.

Losses in the Electric Power System are controlled through the automation of the electric system and power factor control (PF), according to the ANEEL Ordinance, which establishes PF = 0.92. This control against the big consumers is done with great seriousness and those who escape the limit of 0.92 will bear a heavy fine.

Another way to control losses is by using peak and intermediate rush hour rates. Many customers chose to use the Generator Group that was inoperative at these times, putting it to operate, in order to reduce the consumption of electricity at these times. The amount that is spent on diesel is much lower than with electricity tariffs and fines.

End Time

This schedule is composed of a period of three consecutive hours that is adopted between 5:00 pm and 10:00 pm, including holidays, except Saturdays and Sundays. These times can vary from concessionaire to concessionaire, according to the region in which it is established.

Intermediate Hours

It is the period comprised of an hour before and an hour after the rush hour.

Off Time

It’s the remaining 19 hours of the day.

The white tariff for residential customers is in force, which is the incentive for not using high power equipment, such as shower, electric faucet and iron, during peak and intermediate hours.

The white tariff is a new tariff option that signals to consumers the variation of the energy value according to the day and time of consumption. It will be offered to consumer units that are serviced at low voltage (127, 220, 380 or 440 volts, denominated group B) and to those belonging to group A that opts for the low voltage tariff. The measure was approved in a public meeting of the Board of Directors of ANEEL.

The star system transformers projects, as mandated by ANEEL, also contribute to the reduction of losses because it is a more balanced and reliable system than the delta system. The goal is to eliminate, over time, the delta distribution system.

Inspections with thermovision to check and subsequently eliminate hot spots – current leakage – occurring in compromised connections, equipment or insulators are constant practices, as well as load balancing between primary phases.

The construction of new DTEs and new circuit designs, including changing the distribution voltage class from 5 kv to 15 kv or 25 kv, according to the region, are prime factors to reduce losses in the Electric Power System, since the higher the voltage the lower the current and, consequently, the lower the losses.

Moving to compact primary network – space cable – is also a determining factor for loss reduction. The Department of Distributed Engineering analyzes and controls all primary circuits, and when necessary intercedes for its improvement.

Technical Losses

Technical Losses in Distribution

The distribution system is divided according to the network segments (high, medium and low voltage), transformers, connection extensions and meters. Specific models are then applied for each of these segments, using simplified information of existing networks and equipment, such as length and gauge of conductors, power of transformers and power supplied to consumer units. Based on this information, it is estimated the percentage of efficient technical losses related to the energy injected into the network.

Non-technical losses

The non-technical losses are calculated by the difference between total losses and technical losses. The regulatory values ​​of non-technical losses are calculated by ANEEL by a methodology for comparing the performance of distributors, observing efficiency criteria and the socioeconomic characteristics of concession areas .

Sources: ANEEL – National Electric Energy Agency

ENEL Distribuição

SHORT Adolpho Eletricista

Adolpho Eletricista – Your Electrician in São Paulo – SP!

Electrician residential, real estate, commercial and industrial.

I attend in São Paulo, Greater São Paulo and South Zone of the São Paulo – BR.

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