Losses in the Electric Power System

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Losses in the Electric Power System

The Electrical Power System consists of generation, transmission and distribution. Losses in the Electric Power System refer to the generated electric energy that passes through transmission lines and distribution networks, but which is not commercialized, either for technical or commercial reasons.

Electrical Power System

The transmission of energy, whether in transmission or distribution, inevitably results in technical losses related to the transformation of electrical energy into thermal energy in conductors (joule effect), losses in transformer cores, dielectric losses, etc.

Non-technical or commercial losses stem mainly from theft (clandestine connection, direct network diversion) or energy fraud (tampering in measurement), popularly known as “cats”, metering and billing errors.

Losses in the Electric Power System are controlled through the automation of the electric system and power factor control (PF), according to the ANEEL Ordinance, which establishes PF = 0.92. This control against the big consumers is done with great seriousness and those who escape the limit of 0.92 will bear a heavy fine.

Another way to control losses is by using peak and intermediate rush hour rates. Many customers chose to use the Generator Group that was inoperative at these times, putting it to operate, in order to reduce the consumption of electricity at these times. The amount that is spent on diesel is much lower than with electricity tariffs and fines.

End Time

This schedule is composed of a period of three consecutive hours that is adopted between 5:00 pm and 10:00 pm, including holidays, except Saturdays and Sundays. These times can vary from concessionaire to concessionaire, according to the region in which it is established.

Intermediate Hours

It is the period comprised of an hour before and an hour after the rush hour.

Off Time

It’s the remaining 19 hours of the day.

The white tariff for residential customers is in force, which is the incentive for not using high power equipment, such as shower, electric faucet and iron, during peak and intermediate hours.

The white tariff is a new tariff option that signals to consumers the variation of the energy value according to the day and time of consumption. It will be offered to consumer units that are serviced at low voltage (127, 220, 380 or 440 volts, denominated group B) and to those belonging to group A that opts for the low voltage tariff. The measure was approved in a public meeting of the Board of Directors of ANEEL.

The star system transformers projects, as mandated by ANEEL, also contribute to the reduction of losses because it is a more balanced and reliable system than the delta system. The goal is to eliminate, over time, the delta distribution system.

Inspections with thermovision to check and subsequently eliminate hot spots – current leakage – occurring in compromised connections, equipment or insulators are constant practices, as well as load balancing between primary phases.

The construction of new DTEs and new circuit designs, including changing the distribution voltage class from 5 kv to 15 kv or 25 kv, according to the region, are prime factors to reduce losses in the Electric Power System, since the higher the voltage the lower the current and, consequently, the lower the losses.

Moving to compact primary network – space cable – is also a determining factor for loss reduction. The Department of Distributed Engineering analyzes and controls all primary circuits, and when necessary intercedes for its improvement.

Technical Losses

Technical Losses in Distribution

The distribution system is divided according to the network segments (high, medium and low voltage), transformers, connection extensions and meters. Specific models are then applied for each of these segments, using simplified information of existing networks and equipment, such as length and gauge of conductors, power of transformers and power supplied to consumer units. Based on this information, it is estimated the percentage of efficient technical losses related to the energy injected into the network.

Non-technical losses

The non-technical losses are calculated by the difference between total losses and technical losses. The regulatory values ​​of non-technical losses are calculated by ANEEL by a methodology for comparing the performance of distributors, observing efficiency criteria and the socioeconomic characteristics of concession areas .

Sources: ANEEL – National Electric Energy Agency

ENEL Distribuição

SHORT Adolpho Eletricista

Adolpho Eletricista – Your Electrician in São Paulo – SP!

Electrician residential, real estate, commercial and industrial.

I attend in São Paulo, Greater São Paulo and South Zone of the São Paulo – BR.

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GTD – Generation, Transmission and Distribution of Electric Energy

When we are dealing with GTD – Generation, Transmission and Distribution of Electric Energy, we refer to the SEP – Electrical Power System, which is defined by “all the materials and equipment necessary for the Generation, Transmission and Distribution of Electric Energy to the final consumer, including”.

The electric power is generated in the Power Plants, which can be: Hydroelectric, Thermoelectric, Nuclear, Solar, Wind, Geothermal and Tidal Power.

Hydroelectric plant

After generation, the voltage must be raised to transmission voltage levels, which is done in an Transformer Transmission Station, located next to the Generating Plant. It is a Voltage Lifting Substation.
The voltage is raised to 138 kV, 235 kV, 440 kV, 750 kV at the 60 hertz (AC) frequency, and there are some transmission networks operating at 1 MV on an experimental basis.
Some transmission networks work in DC until certain point of the circuit, being converted back to AC.

Tidal power plant

HVDC systems are an alternative for the transmission of large blocks of energy (over 1500 MW) over long distances (over 1000 km).

In the 1950s, the transmission voltage was 50 kV, then it was changed to 69 kV and some years later to 88 kV. Today these voltage values ​​are considered subtransmission voltage.

After the Transmission, there is a Transformer Transformer Station, where the voltage is transformed into subtransmission values ​​to feed the Transformer Distribution Stations and Substations of large industries.


The reason for increasing the value of the transmission voltage over the years was the increase in the demand for electric power, caused by the population increase, industrial and business growth and the range of consumer electronics devices that appeared in the consumer market, with increasing powers high.

As an example we have the electric shower, which migrated from 3000 W to 4500 W, 5600 W, 6800 W and 7800 W. Aluminum Cable for Transmission When we talk about increased demand, we refer to an increase in electric current, which causes overload in the Electrical System of Power and Loss, requiring the increase of the working voltage to lower the current, as they are inversely proportional in the SEP.

Aluminum Cable for Transmission

Another determining factor for raising the transmission voltage is that it is possible to reduce the gauge of the electric conductors, as the current values ​​are lowered; we can not forget that the calculation of voltage drop is also a preponderant factor for the calculation of the gauge of the conductor to be used.

Upon reaching urban centers, electricity must be lowered to levels of distribution to be delivered to customers.

The whole process of distribution network operation is found in the articles Primary Distribution Network, Distribution Transformer Station, Underground Distribution Network among others in this site.

SHORT Adolpho Eletricista

Adolpho Eletricista – Your Electrician in São Paulo- SP!

Electrician residential, real estate, commercial and industrial.

I attend in São Paulo, Greater São Paulo and South Zone of São Paulo – BR.

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